England’s only recorded military coup d’état resulted in the removal of 140 moderate and Royalist Members of Parliament who backed a negotiated settlement with Charles, of which 45 were arrested.

Due to miscommunication and a lack of clear orders Lord Cardigan led the Light Brigade, a cavalry unit consisting of approximately 670 horsemen, in a frontal assault against a fortified Russian artillery position at the end of the valley.

Launched on Yom Kippur, the holiest day in the Jewish calendar, Egyptian forces went on to cross the Suez Canal and establish a bridgehead, while Syrian troops launched an offensive in the Golan Heights.