On the 11th October 1521, Pope Leo X granted the title “Defender of the Faith” to King Henry VIII of England.

On the 19th May 1536, Anne Boleyn – Henry VIII’s second wife and mother of the future Elizabeth I – was beheaded in the Tower of London, having been found guilty of adultery, treason, and incest.

John Rogers became the first English Protestant martyr under Mary I after he was burnt at the stake.

The concept of a lottery, in which lots were drawn to determine a winner, had been around for centuries before Queen Elizabeth I chartered a prize draw to raise money for the “reparation of the havens and strength of the Realme, and towardes such other publique good works”.