The First Barbary War lasted until June 1805, but continuing tensions led to the Second Barbary War in 1815.

John Hancock, one of Boston’s wealthiest merchants and a leading figure in Boston politics, forcibly removed customs officials from his ship Lydia.

By the start of the 17th century merchants from the Dutch Republic had begun to undertake voyages to the ‘Spice Islands’ of the Indian Ocean.

France and the United States signed the first two treaties ever negotiated by the American government, and which formally recognised the independence of the United States.