While preparing for the decisive Battle of the Milvian Bridge, Constantine reportedly witnessed a Christian cross which may have been accompanied by a Latin inscription which roughly translates as ‘In this sign, you will conquer.’

While the republic’s first government was based on a self-governed assembly known as the Arengo, the current system in San Marino has been in place since the Statutes of 1600.

Ancient sources state that the Emperor Claudius as poisoned, although who administered the poison – and on whose orders – continues to be fiercely debated by scholars.

Beginning at around 1pm on 24 August, Mount Vesuvius sent gas, volcanic ash, and pumice into the stratosphere for up to 20 hours. This was followed by a pyroclastic flow that carried gas and molten rock down from the volcano and which then buried the previously fallen ash.