The French declaration of war was part of a broader strategy by the revolutionary government to pre-empt foreign intervention and unite the French people behind the revolutionary cause.

The Decembrists were driven by ideals of constitutionalism, liberal reforms, and a desire for a more participatory government but were defeated when Nicholas I ordered a cavalry charge and subsequent artillery attack using grapeshot.

Facing the inevitability of conflict amidst diminishing support following the invasion by William of Orange, James II made the decision to flee to France where he found refuge under the protection of his cousin, Louis XIV.