The dissolution of the Long Parliament signalled the end of the republican experiment initiated by the Civil War and cleared the way for Charles II to return to England as king, marking the beginning of the Restoration era.

Pepys had begun writing his diary in January 1660. Since being published in 1825 it has become an important source for historians studying the period of the Restoration. He stopped writing due to a fear that constant writing by candlelight was damaging his eyesight.

Beginning at a bakery in Pudding Lane, the catastrophic fire blazed for more than three days and destroyed over 13,000 houses, churches and government buildings.