On the 24th November 1859, English naturalist and geologist Charles Darwin published On the Origin of Species, the ground-breaking book that is considered by many to be the foundation of evolutionary biology.

On the 31st October 1517, the foundations of the Protestant Reformation were laid when Martin Luther reputedly nailed his ‘Ninety-five Theses’ to the door of All Saints’ Church in Wittenberg – a town in the German state of Saxony-Anhalt.

John Thomas Scopes, a substitute science teacher in Tennessee, was found guilty of teaching evolution in school.

The 22nd June 1633 saw Galileo Galilei, the famed scientist, was found “vehemently suspect of heresy” by the Papal Inquisition and forced to recant his belief in the heliocentric universe originally put forward by Copernicus ninety years previously.

Vietnamese Buddhist monk Thích Quảng Đức burned himself to death at a busy crossroads in Saigon.