The Arab Revolt began fully on June 10th 1916 when Grand Sharif Hussein bin Ali, the guardian of the holy city of Mecca, ordered his troops to attack the Ottoman Caliphate’s garrison in the city.

The Crimean War began in October 1853, having been triggered by disagreements between Russia and the Ottoman Empire regarding Russia’s right to protect the Orthodox Christian minority in the Ottoman-controlled Holy Land.

On the 1st November 1911, the first aerial bombing using an aeroplane took place when Italian Lieutenant Giulio Gavotti dropped four grenades on Turkish troops in Libya.