Tweed’s corrupt practices were exposed by investigative journalists such as those at The New York Times and he was regularly attacked by Thomas Nast, the political cartoonist for Harper’s Weekly whose cartoons helped to identify Tweed in Spain.

Hale volunteered to gather intelligence on British troop movements and strategies but was captured, swiftly subjected to a trial by British authorities, found guilty of spying, and condemned to death as an illegal combatant.

Having opened on 16 June 1884, passengers paid 5 cents to ride the Switchback Railways and achieved speeds of up to 6 miles per hour.

Kennedy joked that he could ‘retire after having had “Happy Birthday” sung to me in such a sweet, wholesome way.’