This surge in immigration was primarily driven by economic opportunities in the United States, which was at the height of the industrial revolution. This combined with a desire among some to escape growing political instability in Europe, while ethnic and religious violence led Jews from the Russian Empire in particular to seek a new life elsewhere.

Historians have since questioned the convictions, which saw ten men hanged for murder – six in the prison at Pottsville, and four at Mauch Chunk in Carbon County.

On June 11th 1837, the Broad Street Riot broke out in Boston, Massachusetts, between Irish immigrants and existing American citizens known as Yankees.