The Turkish War of Independence began when General Mustafa Kemal Pasha, the Inspector of the Ottoman 9th Army and later known as Atatürk, arrived at the town of Samsun on the Black Sea Coast.
The secret Sykes-Picot Agreement between Britain and France, formally known as the Asia Minor Agreement, was ratified.
The British ship RMS Lusitania sank after being attacked by the German U-boat U-20 off the coast of Ireland.
Lieutenant-Colonel John McCrae, a Canadian doctor, wrote the war poem ‘In Flanders Fields’, which inspired the symbol of the poppy to commemorate members of the military killed in war.
Vladimir Lenin arrived in Russia after a decade of self-imposed exile.
The agreement marked the end of years of intermittent conflict between Britain and France and set the stage for the series of agreements known as the Triple Entente that bound Britain, France and Russia together at the start of the First World War.
The Brunner Mond chemical factory had been built in 1893 to manufacture caustic soda and soda crystals.
The Paris Peace Conference convened to establish the terms of the peace after the First World War.
The two German socialists were joint-founders of the Spartacist League and the Communist Party of Germany, and were captured following the Spartacist uprising that began on 4 January.
Keen to distance the United States from nationalistic disputes that fuelled European rivalries, Wilson’s 14 Points sought a lasting peace by securing terms that avoided selfish ambitions of the victors.