John Bellingham fired a single shot from a pistol, fatally wounding prime minister Spencer Perceval in the chest. Perceval collapsed immediately, and despite efforts to save him, he died shortly afterward.

The Treaty of Windsor was negotiated by King John I of Portugal and John of Gaunt, the Duke of Lancaster, on behalf of the English king Richard II and remains in force. This makes it the longest-lasting diplomatic treaty in recorded history, and even served as the basis for Portuguese assistance to Britain during the Second World War.

Membership of the Order of the Garter is highly prestigious and is often reserved for members of the English nobility and royalty. Over the centuries, the Order of the Garter has evolved into a ceremonial institution, with its members participating in various official events and ceremonies.

Walpole was appointed First Lord of the Treasury, Chancellor of the Exchequer and Leader of the House of Commons. This made him the de facto Prime Minister and, while the title was not officially recognized at the time, Walpole wielded considerable power and influence.

The dissolution of the Long Parliament signalled the end of the republican experiment initiated by the Civil War and cleared the way for Charles II to return to England as king, marking the beginning of the Restoration era.

Arnold faced three additional charges of using a locomotive without a horse, having fewer than three people in charge of the vehicle and for not having his name and address on the vehicle. The local magistrates found him guilty on all counts and placed a fine of £4 7s, of which one shilling plus costs, was for speeding.