Elected representatives assembled in Austin on January 28, 1861, and four days later on 1 February the convention voted 166 to 8 in favour of secession. The decision was confirmed through a state-wide referendum on 23 February.

Sherman’s March to the Sea is remembered for brutal tactics that confiscated or destroyed food, livestock, and supplies. Railroads were dismantled, and industry disrupted. The devastation was widespread, and not only limited to military targets. Homes, farms, and civilian infrastructure became casualties of the march.

The Battle of Palmito Ranch ended in a Confederate victory. Union private John J. Williams died in the battle, likely making him the last battlefield fatality of the Civil War.