Official figures reported 241 deaths as a result of the crackdown on the Tiananmen Square protests but unofficial estimates, including one by the US Ambassador at the time, place the figure at more than twice that.
The world’s earliest dated printed book, a copy of the Diamond Sutra, was created in China.
Thomas Stevens departed San Francisco on a large-wheeled Ordinary, also known as a penny-farthing, to become the first person to cycle around the world.
The Terracotta Army was discovered in Shaanxi province, China.
Port Arthur was a fortified naval base in the south of Manchuria that had been leased to Russia since 1898.
The original signatories – United States President Franklin D. Roosevelt, British Prime Minister Winston Churchill, the USSR’s Ambassador to the US Maxim Litvinov, and Chinese Minister of Foreign Affairs T. V. Soong – were joined the next day by a further 24 nations.
It was during the Long March that Mao Zedong emerged as the best person to lead the Chinese Communist Party, and his survival alongside less than 10% of the original troops mythologised him and reinforced his authority.
The Chinese Communists in the People’s Liberation Army had been fighting the second stage of a long and costly civil war against the Nationalist forces of Chiang Kai-shek, known as the Kuomintang, since shortly after the end of the Second World War.
The First Opium War formally ended when Britain and China signed the Treaty of Nanking, the first of the ‘unequal treaties’.
By the time the Cultural Revolution ended in 1976 an estimated minimum of 400,000 people had died through torture, execution, or suicide.