The Battle of Palmito Ranch ended in a Confederate victory. Union private John J. Williams died in the battle, likely making him the last battlefield fatality of the Civil War.

With the cry of ‘bread or blood!’ the women marched to the city’s market district where they broke into government storehouses and nearby businesses.

It was sent to the states for ratification the next day, a process that was concluded on 6 December after the necessary three-quarters of states approved it.

As Star of the West approached Fort Sumter on the morning of 9 January it was met with cannon shots from cadet George E. Haynsworth on nearby Morris Island.

Other states soon followed South Carolina’s lead, setting the stage for the American Civil War.

The Revenue Act of 1861 was signed into law by Abraham Lincoln, imposing U.S. federal income tax for the first time.