Charles was executed on 30 January, having requested to wear two shirts as protection from the cold so that the crowd wouldn’t think he was shaking from fear. Six days later, Parliament abolished the monarchy.

At 11.39am Challenger lifted off, and seventy-three seconds later the Shuttle began to disintegrate following a huge fireball. All seven members of crew were killed, and the disaster led to NASA suspending all Space Shuttle missions for over two and a half years.

The advancing Soviet troops met some resistance from remaining Nazi troops in the Polish city of Oświęcim, but by 3pm on 27 January 1945 they had captured the Main Camp and Auschwitz II-Birkenau.

Pope Pius IV issued a Papal bull confirming the decrees of the Council of Trent that defined Catholic doctrine in the face of the Protestant Reformation.