On the 18th September 1931, the Manchurian Crisis – also known as the Mukden Incident –began when Japanese soldiers blew up a section of their own railway in the Chinese region of Manchuria. Although it caused only minimal damage, the explosion was blamed on Chinese rebels and led to the Japanese using it as an excuse to invade.
The South Manchuria Railway had been controlled by Japan since the end of the Russo-Japanese War, but the relationship between the Japanese military who guarded the line and the local Chinese population was tense. Following the onset of the Great Depression, some renegade members of the Japanese Kwantung Army believed that a conflict in the area would be beneficial for Japan.
A small quantity of dynamite was detonated near the tracks at around 10.20pm on the evening of the 18th September. The explosion caused such little damage that a train was able to go over the section of track ten minutes later without incident, but within hours the resident Japanese forces had driven the nearby Chinese garrison from their barracks in retaliation for the alleged attack.
Over the next few days the Japanese army took control of towns and cities along the entire railway line, acting independently of the government in Tokyo. The politicians, unable to reign in the army, eventually lent support to the invasion and sent additional troops to support the invasion.
The Chinese government appealed to the League of Nations for assistance, which promptly passed a resolution calling for the withdrawal of Japanese troops. Japan ignored the League, and ruled Manchuria as a puppet state.