On the 2nd November 1795, the Directory was established in France. Created as a result of the Thermidorean Reaction that ended the dominance of the Committee of Public Safety, the Directory survived for four years before it was overthrown by Napoleon in the coup of the 18th Brumaire.

The Thermidorean Reaction that began on the 27th July 1794 had seen the National Convention turn against the Jacobin leaders of the French Revolution, leading to the arrest and execution of Robespierre and 21 others. This was followed by a purge of other radicals in what became known as the White Terror.

Having alienated itself from the radical left-wing, the National Convention also faced threats from the right that culminated in the Royalist attack on the 13th Vendémiaire which was put down by Napoleon Bonaparte with a whiff of grapeshot.

Prior to the Royalist uprising, the National Convention had ratified a new constitution known as the Constitution of the Year III. This established a bicameral legislature and a five-man Directory that wielded executive power. However, the Directory was unsuccessful at dealing with the domestic problems facing France and even the military victories against foreign enemies were not enough to secure much support. In response the Directory used the Army to repress its opponents, which served to fuel the opposition even further and give the Army increasing power within France.

By 1799 even the government realised that it could not continue for much longer. On the 9th November Napoleon began a coup that replaced the Directory with the Consulate and effectively brought the French Revolution to an end, ten years after it began.

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